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    Japanese-American Internment Survivors and Descendants Speak Out

    The Memory Keepers


    For survivors of Japanese-American incarceration and their descendants in California, documentation has become resistance.

    On February 15, 2019, Donald Trump declared a national emergency at the border between the United States and Mexico. In a press conference from the White House Rose Garden, he used the word invasion seven times, describing human traffickers, drug traffickers, and gang members streaming through the southern border, which needed a new wall.

    His announcement came 77 years, almost to the day, after President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, in effect authorizing the incarceration of some 120,000 people of Japanese descent living on the West Coast, for “protection against espionage and against sabotage.” Two-thirds of them were American citizens. Many of them had been living in the country for decades, praised for their “work ethic,” their contributions to the growth of West. Suddenly they were ordered to pack up their belongings, shutter their businesses, sell their homes and cars; some were given only a few days. They were shipped temporarily to “assembly centers,” then to “relocation centers,” where many lived for up to four years in barrack-like camps on old ranches, racetracks, and fairgrounds. It was the culmination of a long history of racist, restrictive immigration policies and surveillance of the Japanese community in America, which had reached a fever pitch after Pearl Harbor.


    Special thanks to Anna Levenson, The American River Conservancy, Densho, Jun Harada, Melissa Lobach

    大豪门彩票

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